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Intel Core 2 Duo E8400 Dual Core ProcessorCore 2 Duo E8400 Dual Core ProcessorIntel Core 2 Duo E8400 Dual Core Processor(3GHz, 6MB, 1333MHz FSB, LGA775 Socket T - MPN: BX80570E8400)Price Range: $169.99 - $269.66 from 17 SellersDescription: Based on Intel Core microarchitecture, the Intel Core 2 Duo processor family is designed to provide energy-efficient performance so you can do more at once without slowing down.Quick GlanceProcessor Socket: Intel Socket T (LGA775)Processor Class: Intel Core 2 DuoProcessor Type: 2Bus Speed: 1333MHzProcessor Speed: 3000Processor Speed + ClassBus Speed: 1333MHzProcessor Speed: 3 GHzProcessor Class: Intel Core 2 DuoPhysical + Memory SpecificationsIncluded Fan Type: ATXL2 Cache Size: 6 MBNumber of Processor Cores: 2Processor Socket: Intel Socket T (LGA775)WarrantyWarranty Information: 3 Year Limited Warranty

Crackling Sound With Soundblaster Cards

This seems like a strange problem with Windows XP. Some users are noticing scratchy, popping sound with their SoundBlaster cards and Windows XP..I have come to the conclusion that this is happening the most often on PC's that contain RAID setups such as a Highpoint controller.

The main fix I have come across is to install Raid drivers OTHER than those that shipped with Windows XP. For instance on my Raid setup, I went back to a older Windows 2000 driver and this has almost completely stopped my sound problems.

Change The Taskbar Group Size

By default taskbar grouping will happen when you have three or more of the same program windows open. We have found the registry key to change the settings so that, if you prefer, Windows XP will wait till you open even more of the same program windows before they start to group. Here is an overview of Taskbar Grouping first:


The taskbar can become crowded with buttons when you are working with multiple programs at the same time. For this reason, Windows provides a feature to help you manage a large number of open documents and program items. The taskbar button grouping feature works in two ways. First, taskbar buttons for documents opened by the same program are always displayed in the same area of the taskbar so you can find your documents easily.
Second, if you have many documents open in the same program, Windows combines all the documents into one taskbar button that is labeled with the name of the program. A triangle on the right side of the button indicates that many documents are open in this program. The single button provides access to all the open documents. To access one of the open documents, click the triangle on the taskbar button, and then click a document name in the list. To act on all the open documents at the same time, use the right-click menu. For example, right-clicking the triangle gives you a menu that lets you close all the open documents.

The Tip

Click here to download the registry key to enable user defined grouping. It's currently set at 3, if you want to change this number open the .reg file in notepad and edit the line:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

Change this to whatever number you wish explorer to group at. i.e. change it to dword:00000008 if you wanted explorer to group on 8, or dword:00000005 if you want explorer to group on 5. Save the file after editing to the number and then click on the file you have edited. It will ask you if you want to enter this entry into the registry, click yes. You will then be notified if the key has been added to your registry correctly.

Group policy for Windows XP

One of the most full featured Windows XP configuration tools available is hidden right there in your system, but most people don't even know it exists. It's called the Local Group Policy Editor, or gpedit for short. To invoke this editor, select Start and then Run, then type the following:

After you hit ENTER, you'll be greeted by gpedit, which lets you modify virtually every feature in Windows XP without having to resort to regedit. Dig around and enjoy!

How Do I Install Net Meeting

How Do I Install Net Meeting

Wondering how to install Netmeeting on Windows XP? Well you don't have to install it! Why? It is already pre-installed with Windows XP, but (by design they say) it isn't linked to anywhere on your programs menu. Here is how to load it:

1: Click START then RUN
2: Enter "conf" without the quotes

That's it - now you can Netmeet to your hearts conten

Get The Drivers You Need

- Visit Windows Update (XP Only)
- Look at the left hand pane and under Other Options click Personalize Windows Update.
- Now in the right hand pane check the box - Display the link to the Windows Update Catalog under See Also
- Below Choose which categories and updates to display on Windows Update - make sure you check all the boxes you want shown.
- Click Save Settings
- Now look in the left hand pane under See Also click Windows Update Catalog and choose what you're looking for. Choose either MS updates or drivers for hardware devices.
- Start the Wizard and off you go.

There are a TON of drivers there. I highly recommend you take a look at this page prior to downloading something from the web.

Save Your New Downloads

Since some people are still using modems and since MS is issuing patches right and left for XP wouldn't it be nice if after you downloaded all the updates you could save them? Well, you can and MS has provided a way for you to do it.
Here's How:
- Logon to Windows Update
- Choose Windows Update Catalogue (left hand pane)
- Choose Find updates for Microsoft Windows operating systems (right hand pane)
- Choose your version and language then Search
- Choose one the following:
- Critical Updates and Service Packs
- Service Packs and Recommended Downloads
- Multi-Language Features (0)
- Once chosen simply click on what you want to download and then back at the top click Review Download Basket
- You are taken to the next page where at the top you can specify where the downloads are to be saved.
- Click Download now.

Each patch will make a directory under the root of the folder you saved them to. Once finished you need to go to where you saved the file (s) to and then simply install all your patches.
Read-me's are available in each patch section so you know which one you are installing

Speed Up Browsing

When you connect to a web site your computer sends information back and forth. Some of this information deals with resolving the site name to an IP address, the stuff that TCP/IP really deals with, not words. This is DNS information and is used so that you will not need to ask for the site location each and every time you visit the site. Although Windows XP and Windows XP have a pretty efficient DNS cache, you can increase its overall performance by increasing its size. You can do this with the registry entries below:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

Make a new text file and rename it to dnscache.reg. Then copy and paste the above into it and save it. Merge it into the registry.

Mega Shutdown and Restart Troubleshooting Guide

Thus far, Windows XP shutdown issues most resemble those of Windows Millennium Edition. That is, most of them center around a very few issues, especially driver version and other legacy hardware and software compatibility issues. These are detailed below. The driver and software issues are expected to resolve substantially as hardware and software manufacturers release updated versions, now that Win XP has been officially launched.

Reboot Instead of Shutdown

The majority of shutdown problems reported with Windows XP thus far have been that it reboots when shutdown is attempted. This may be a global symptom emerging from several distinct causes, because XP executes an automatic restart in the event of a system failure. I'm guessing that this means that more or less anything compromising the operating system during the shutdown process could force this reboot. If this is true, then our job will be to prepare a series of steps suitable to isolate the most likely cause. Disabling the "restart on system failure" feature may permit the exact cause to be isolated:

Right-click on My Computer and select Properties. Click the Advanced tab. Under 'Startup & Recovery,' click Settings. Under 'System Failure,' uncheck the box in front of 'System reboot.'
Some things that have produced this reboot-instead-of-shutdown symptom are:
" By now, Roxio's Easy CD / Direct CD software is well documented as being a major cause - possibly the major cause - of this undesirable shutdown behavior. On November 1, Roxio released new drivers to solve this problem in Easy CD Creator 5 Platinum in its Windows XP updater for the Platinum product. A fix for Easy CD Creator 5 Basic is in the works. In the first few hours of its release, several peple have written me saying that this fix has resolved their Windows XP shutdown problem. I suspect that <>of the Windows XP shutdown problems will go away with Roxio's release of this patch for Platinum and the pending patch for Basic. This has been the single most common cause of Win XP shutdown problems thus far. One person after another has written to me with the simple message that this reboot behavior went away as soon as they uninstalled Easy CD. HINT No. 1: PCBUILD subscribers, by trial and error, identified the file CDRALW2K.SYS (version as the Roxio file that was causing his shutdown problems and error conditions. When he deleted this one file, his problems went away. HINT No.2: The Mystic Overclocker and others have reported that installing Easy CD 5.0 does not cause the shutdown problem, provided they do not install the Direct CD component. Though this isn't universally true, enough people have mentioned it by now for me to suggest it as a work-around.

Unassigned Device Drivers

PCBUILD subscribers have found that Windows XP won't shutdown properly if unsigned device drivers are used. Since all necessary device drivers have not yet been created for Win XP, this will be a problem for the next few months. It resembles the pattern for Win ME shutdown problems, because even today, many hardware manufacturers have not prepared suitable drivers for use with ME.


In the early days of Win ME, one of the biggest culprits for shutdown issue was the Creative Labs SoundBlaster Live. History repeated itself in the early stages of Win XP. This now has been fixed for some users (but not for all) by the release of new drivers.
Here's the commonly reported scenario: On attempting shutdown, nothing at all appears to happen for a prolonged period of time. Eventually, an "End Task" window appears wanting to terminate DEVLDR32.EXE. No matter what one does, one ultimately is locked out of shutting down other than by a power switch shutoff. (This problem exists with the SBLive in Windows 2000 also.)
In mid-July, Microsoft posted new Win XP drivers for the SBLive on the Windows Update site. According to PCBUILD subscribers, these drivers solve the shutdown problem the SBLive was causing. I recommend you go to Windows Update and download the new driver if you have an SBLive card. However, some users are reporting that the DEVLDR problem continues to plague them even with the new drivers:

" In the event installing the new drivers does not solve your shutdown problem, try some of the solutions people have been using prior to the release of these new drivers. PCBUILD subscribers have written that they solved the well-documented SBLive/DEVLDR32 problem by downloading and installing the LiveService software. (We caution that one should disable all antivirus software while executing this program. I do recommend that you at least virus-check anything you download first!)
" PCBUILD subscribers" gave another solution to this problem: Uninstall the LiveWare software pack (of which DEVLDR is part). Uninstall the SBLive card. Restart Windows, let it detect the new hardware, and use the Windows XP driver. However, other users have reported that this isn't satisfactory because the XP native driver gives very poor sound quality. If the new drivers work for you, they are definitely the preferred option.


Other video cards that have created problems are those based on the Kyro II video chip, such as the Hercules Prophet 4500. PCBUILD subscribers have reported that until they removed the Kyro II / Prophet 4500, they could shutdown, hibernate, or go to stand by just fine, but Restart wouldn't work - it would shutdown Windows instead. Others with this video card have reported this strange behavior on both restart and shutdown.

Apparently, this problem is now solved. Microsoft reports that new drivers for this card, specific to Windows XP, are now available from Hercules. At present, they remain uncertified (PowerVR, who makes the Kyro II chip, is working on that), but they reportedly work just fine. Download the Kyro II drivers here.


During shutdown or reboot, Win XP may hang (stop responding) at the "saving your settings" screen. During such a hang, there is no response to Ctrl+Alt+Del; the mouse may or may not work. (The problem may be intermittent.)

This is a known bug in Windows XP, for which Microsoft has a supported fix. Because this patch is scheduled for further quality assurance testing in the future, Microsoft only recommends that you install it if you have a serious problem; otherwise, they recommend waiting for Service Pack 1, which will include the more permanent version of the fix. To learn how to get this patch, see Windows XP Stops Responding (Hangs) During Windows Shutdown.

As a workaround, we resolved this problem by dismantling the Windows XP logon Welcome screen. In the Control Panel, click User Accounts, then click "Change the way users log on or off." Uncheck the box that says "Use the Welcome screen." This removes the initial logon screen with individual icons for each user and, instead, pops up the classic logon prompt that requires each user to type a user name and password.


Download the "ShutMeDown" Registry patch. Please follow sensible Registry editing protocol. Backup your Registry before the change (or run System Restore to create a restore point). This is not the appropriate fix for most machines, but does help a significant number. After installing, test Windows shutdown. If the fix does not work for you, remove it by restoring the Registry to its prior state.
For those who want a little more background information, the fix provided by this patch is based on a Microsoft Knowledge Base article Q155117 for Windows NT 4.0. It apparently still works in NT 5.1; that is, in Windows XP.

Stop Erros messages at shutdown

Some users have gotten an error message similar to the following when attempting either to shutdown or restart Win XP:


TechNet and the Microsoft Knowledge Base have numerous articles discussing this type of error condition; for example, these. As a review of these articles will show, these are commonly device driver problems, but may also be caused by troublesome software (such as the notorious CrashGuard), or a problem in a system service. MSKB article Q262575 discusses a shutdown problem of this type, known to exist in Windows 2000 due to a resource (IRQ) conflict, if you have PACE Interlok anti-piracy software installed. This problem may occur in Windows XP as well.

Try the following as one approach to these problems: Restart the computer. Press F8 during the restart and select "Last Known Good Configuration." If you catch the problem when it first occurs (meaning you likely have installed only one or two drivers or new service), this will return you to a previous working condition.

It has been reported by a PCBUILD Subscriber that these STOP code error message occur when Windows XP is trying to shut down devices. He says that he has seen this twice: once with Logitech Quickcam installed (with an unsupported driver), and once with a USB DSL modem that would hang if it wasn't disconnected before shutdown.

Shutdown Works but its real slow

If it appears that Win XP is not shutting down, give it some time. Some users have reported a minute or longer for shutdown to visibly start. Thus far, it appears that this is a consequence of software that is running when shutdown is attempted, and it also may have something to do with particular hardware. If you are experiencing this problem, be sure to close all running programs before attempting shutdown and see if this solves your problem. If so, then you can determine, by trial and error, which program(s) are involved.

One specific solution for this can be found: In Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services. (You can also get this by launching SERVICES.MSC from a Run box. This utility is also built into the Computer Management console.) Stop the Nvidia Driver Helper service. Many other newsgroup participants quickly confirmed that this solved this "extremely slow shutdown" problem for them.

Powerdown Issues

"Powerdown issues" are quite distinctive from "shutdown issues." I define a shutdown problem as one wherein Windows doesn't make it at least to the "OK to shut off your computer" screen. If Windows gets that far, or farther, then it has shut down correctly. However, the computer may not powerdown correctly after that. This is a different problem, and I encourage people reporting these issues to make a clear distinction in their labeling.

When Windows XP won't powerdown automatically, the APM/NT Legacy Power Node may not be enabled. To enable this, right-click on the My Computer icon, click Properties | Hardware | Device Manager | View. Check the box labeled "Show Hidden Devices." If it's available on your computer, there will be a red X on the APM/NT Legacy Node. Try enabling it and see if this resolves the powerdown problem. (Tip from Terri Stratton.)

This should resolve the powerdown issue in most cases. However, other factors can sometimes interfere with correct powerdown functioning. In that case, consider the following tips:
" If you changing the default power settings in the BIOS, it can lead to a powerdown problem. Restoring all BIOS power settings to default will likely fix it.
PCBUILD subscribers reported that, when the above didn't work , they restored powerdown functioning by disabling his CD-ROM's AutoRun feature. The fastest way to do this is with the "Disable AutoRun" Registry patch which you can download here.

Other Known Issues and Hints

" BIOS UPGRADE. As with every new operating system that comes along - especially one that is as much of a "step up" as Windows XP is from Windows 9x - the recommendation is made to be sure your BIOS is updated. Many people have reported that this has solved their shutdown problems (and had other advantages) with Win XP, just as it has in earlier versions of Windows.

Quick Switching user Accounts

One reported quirk affecting shutdown is the three-account shuffle. Windows XP gives the ability to rapidly bounce between user accounts, with Win+L. If at least three user accounts exist, and you quick-switch through all three, and then log off all three in reverse order - "backing out" in an orderly way - then the machine may hang on shutdown. There may be other variations of account shuffling that cause this, but this one, clear example was provided by newsgroup correspondent John Ward. So far, I have no concrete clue on what may be occurring here.

Convert a FAT Partition to the NTFS File System

To convert a FAT partition to NTFS, perform the following steps.

Click Start, click Programs, and then click Command Prompt.

In Windows XP, click Start, and then click Run.

At the command prompt, type CONVERT [driveletter]: /FS:NTFS.

Convert.exe will attempt to convert the partition to NTFS.

NOTE: Although the chance of corruption or data loss during the conversion from FAT to NTFS is minimal, it is best to perform a full backup of the data on the drive that it is to be converted prior to executing the convert command. It is also recommended to verify the integrity of the backup before proceeding, as well as to run RDISK and update the emergency repair disk (ERD).

Convert.exe will attempt to convert the partition to NTFS.

Make XP boot even Faster

Microsoft has chosen a completely different path for XP and it's boot features by trying to incorporate as much support for newer fastboot BIOSes that are on most current motherboards. They built XP in such a way as to make it able to take advantage of features in these new BIOSes, and one of the coolest things is a small application called bootvis. bootvis.

Bootvis watches everything that loads at boot time, from the moment the OS begins to load just after POST (Power On Self-Test) to the moment you get to a usable Desktop. Some programs, most notably Norton AntiVirus 2002, suck up valuable seconds before you can actually DO anything even though you're at the Desktop. bootvis generates a trace file that you load and can then "see" a visual representation of what's happening. Every file, driver, hard drive read/write, etc., is recorded. You can then use bootvis to optimize the loading of files during the boot sequence. bootvis will rearrange the ways these very files are stored on the hard drive, thereby improving the boot time dramatically.

Create a Password Reset Disk

If you’re running Windows XP Professional as a local user in a workgroup environment, you can create a password reset disk to log onto your computer when you forget your password. To create the disk:

1.Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click User Accounts.
2.Click your account name.
3.Under Related Tasks, click Prevent a forgotten password.
4.Follow the directions in the Forgotten Password Wizard to create a password reset disk.
5.Store the disk in a secure location, because anyone using it can access your local user account.

Copy Files and Folders to CDs

To copy files and folders to a CD

•Insert a blank, writable CD into the CD recorder.

•Open My Computer.

•Click the files or folders you want to copy to the CD. To select more than one file, hold down the CTRL key while you click the files you want. Then, under File and Folder Tasks, click Copy this file, Copy this folder, or Copy the selected items.

•If the files are located in My Pictures, under Picture Tasks, click Copy to CD or Copy all items to CD, and then skip to step 5.

•In the Copy Items dialog box, click the CD recording drive, and then click Copy.

•In My Computer, double–click the CD recording drive. Windows displays a temporary area where the files are held before they are copied to the CD. Verify that the files and folders that you intend to copy to the CD appear under Files Ready to be Written to the CD.

•Under CD Writing Tasks, click Write these files to CD. Windows displays the CD Writing Wizard. Follow the instructions in the wizard.


•Do not copy more files to the CD than it will hold. Standard CDs hold up to 650 megabytes (MB). High–capacity CDs hold up to 850 MB.

•Be sure that you have enough disk space on your hard disk to store the temporary files that are created during the CD writing process. For a standard CD, Windows reserves up to 700 MB of the available free space. For a high–capacity CD, Windows reserves up to 1 gigabyte (GB) of the available free space.

•After you copy files or folders to the CD, it is useful to view the CD to confirm that the files are copied. For more information, click Related Topics.
To stop the CD recorder from automatically ejecting the CD

•Open My Computer.

•Right–click the CD recording drive, and then click Properties.

•On the Recording tab, clear the Automatically eject the CD after writing check box

Disable Attachment restrictions in Outlook from Office

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER > Software > Microsoft > Office > 10.0 >Outlook > Security]

"Level1Remove" = "exe;bat;vbs"

Don't Ignore the Windows Logo Key

The Windows logo key, located in the bottom row of most computer keyboards is a little-used treasure. Don't ignore it. It is the shortcut anchor for the following commands: Windows: Display the Start menu Windows + D: Minimize or restore all windows Windows + E: Display Windows Explorer Windows + F: Display Search for files Windows + Ctrl + F: Display Search for computer Windows + F1: Display Help and Support Center Windows + R: Display Run dialog box Windows + break: Display System Properties dialog box Windows + shift + M: Undo minimize all windows Windows + L: Lock the workstation Windows + U: Open Utility Manager

Disable CD Autorun -stop-avoid virus from cd

( WinXP PRO Only)

1) Click Start, Run and enter GPEDIT.MSC

2) Go to Computer Configuration, Administrative Templates, System.

3) Locate the entry for Turn autoplay off and modify it as you desire.

FDISK Tutorial

The Basics of Fdisk:
Primary partitions are the only one that are bootable. They're always the C: drive when active. Normally you can only have one (more with some special tricks etc.) Extended partitions are needed when you want more than one partition. You can only have ONE Extended partition. Logical Drives come into the Extended partition. They are handy since you know that you can only have one Primary and one Extended so you can get more than only two partitions. They would be your D:, E:, etc. drives.

First you need to reboot your system with the Boot Disk inserted.

1.At the A: prompt start "FDISK."

2.If asked to use Large Disc support say Yes.

3.The first screen looks like this:

Create Dos Partition or Logical Drive
Set Active Partition
Delete Partitions or Logical DOS Drives
Display Partition Information
Change current fixed drive. (In case you have two or more Hard Drivess)
So, to prepare you hopefully did a backup from your data. You did, didn't you ?!

4.Next we need to remove the existing partitions. So go to 3.

5.Next screen like this:

Delete Primary DOS
Delete Extended DOS
Delete Logical Drives
Delete Non-DOS
Delete always in the following order

Logical (All) > Extended > Primary (Last)

6.Go back to first screen after all partitions have been removed.

7.Now we need to setup our new partitions. Go to 1.

This screen looks like this:

Create Primary DOS
Create Extended DOS
Create Logical DOS Drives
Here we create in the following order

Primary > Extended > Logical Drives.

8.First create the Primary. If asked to use all space say No and enter the amount you wish for the C: drive. It should be set automatically to be the (only) Active partition. If not it may ask you or you have to select "2. Set active partition" from the main menu.

9.Next create the Extended Partition. Use all space left.

It probably advances automatically to the next step, creating the Logical DOS Drives.

10.Enter the amount you wish for the D: partition and than the rest for the third partition.

Think first about the size for the partitions.

OK now we're finished with FDISK so just exit it. Next you need to reboot with the disc still inserted and Format all partitions (the C: partition might need to be formatted with "format c: /s", check the Win95 tip). Another reboot and you can go ahead and install Windows.

When your system supports booting from CD just insert the Windows CD and reboot. The setup will start.

If not, follow these steps:

Win98: insert Boot Disk and CD, reboot, choose "2. boot with CDROM support" and once you're at the prompt change to your CD-drive letter (depends on your partition setup) and enter "setup".
Win95: You must format the C: partition with "Format C: /s"!. Next install your CDROM driver, reboot, insert the Win95 CD, change to the CD-driveletter, enter "setup".
I hope I made no mistakes.

Dual Boot XP

A computer can be configured to let you choose between two or more operating systems each time you restart the computer. With multibooting, you can choose which operating system to run or specify a default OS if no selection is made during the restart process.

Computers Containing Multiple Windows 2000 or Windows XP Partitions
Before installing Windows 2000 and Windows XP on the same machine, you need to prepare your system with different partitions (a process that divides a hard disk into separate sections that can be formatted for use by a file system. Partitions typically have different drive letters such as C or D).
One OS per partition
It’s important to install each operating system on a different partition and install the applications used with each operating system on the same partition as the OS. If an application is used with two different operating systems, install it on two partitions. Placing each operating system in a separate partition ensures that it will not overwrite crucial files used by the other OS.

Install Latest OS Last
In general, you should install the most recent OS last—after you have installed all other operating systems on the target computer. In this case, you should install Windows 2000 and then install Windows XP.

Unique Computer Name
You can set up a computer so that it has multiple installations of Windows XP on multiple partitions. However, you must use a different computer name for each installation if the computer participates in a Windows 2000 Server domain. Because a unique security identifier (SID) is used for each installation of Windows XP on a domain, the computer name for each installation must be unique—even for multiple installations on the same computer.

Checklist Summary
To configure a computer containing Windows 2000 and Windows XP, review the following guidelines:

Install each operating system on a separate drive or disk partition.
Install Windows XP after you have installed Windows 2000.
When you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), by default, the installation is placed on a partition on which no other operating system is located. You can specify a different partition during Setup.
Don’t install Windows XP on a compressed drive unless the drive was compressed with the NTFS file system compression feature.
On any partition where you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), you will need to re-install any programs, such as word processing or e-mail software, after Setup is complete.
Install the programs used by each operating system on the partition with that system. If you want your programs to run with multiple operating systems, you need to install separate copies of the programs in each of the operating system partitions.
If the computer is on a Windows 2000 Server domain, each installation of Windows XP on that computer must have a different computer name.

Computers Containing Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP
Setting up a computer to run Windows XP as well as an earlier operating system such as Windows NT Workstation 4.0 requires addressing compatibility issues among different file systems: NTFS, FAT, and FAT32.

Normally, NTFS is the recommended file system because it supports important features, including the Active Directory™ service and domain-based security. However, using NTFS as the only file system on a computer that contains both Windows XP and Windows NT is not recommended. On these computers, a FAT or FAT32 partition containing the Windows NT 4.0 operating system ensures that when started with Windows NT 4.0, the computer will have access to needed files. In addition, if Windows NT is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, it is recommended that the system partition also be formatted with FAT. This is because earlier operating systems, with one exception, can't access a partition if it uses the latest version of NTFS. The one exception is Windows NT version 4.0 with Service Pack 4 or later, which has access to partitions with the latest version of NTFS, but with some limitations.

Even the latest Service Pack does not provide access to files using the new features in NTFS. Windows NT 4.0 cannot access files that have been stored using NTFS features that did not exist when Windows NT 4.0 was released. For example, a file that uses the new encryption feature won’t be readable when the computer is started with Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, which was released before the encryption feature existed.

Note: If you set up a computer so that it starts with Windows NT 3.51 or earlier on a FAT partition, and Windows XP on an NTFS partition, when that computer starts with Windows NT 3.51, the NTFS partition will not be visible.

Checklist Summary
To configure a computer containing Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP, review the following guidelines:

As explained above, using NTFS as the only file system on a computer containing both Windows XP and Windows NT is not recommended.
Make sure that Windows NT 4.0 has been updated with the latest released Service Pack available for download before installing Windows XP.
Install each operating system on a separate drive or disk partition.
When you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), by default, the installation is placed on a partition on which no other operating system is located. You can specify a different partition during Setup.
Don’t install Windows XP on a compressed drive unless the drive was compressed with the NTFS file system compression feature.
On any partition where you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), you will need to re-install any programs, such as word processing or email software, after Setup is complete.
Install the programs used by each operating system on the partition with that system. If you want your programs to run with multiple operating systems, you need to install separate copies of the programs in each of the operating system partitions.
If the computer is on a Windows NT Server or Windows 2000 Server domain, each installation of Windows XP on that computer must have a different computer name.

Computers Containing MS-DOS or Windows 9x and Windows XP
As explained above you need to address file system compatibility to ensure a multibooting configuration with these earlier operating systems and Windows XP. Remember to install the latest operating system last otherwise important files may be overwritten.

Checklist Summary
To configure a computer containing Windows XP and Windows 9x or MS-DOS, review the following guidelines:

On computers that contain MS-DOS and Windows XP:

MS-DOS must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT. If MS-DOS is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT.
Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten.
On computers that contain Windows 95 and Windows XP:

As in the case above, Windows 95 must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT. (For Windows 95 OSR2, FAT32 may be used.) If Windows 95 is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT (or FAT32 for Windows 95 OSR2).
Compressed DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes won’t be available while you are running Windows XP. It is not necessary to uncompress DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes that you will access only with Windows 95.
Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten.
On computers that contain Windows 98 (or Windows ME) and Windows XP:

As in the cases above, Windows 98 or Windows Millennium Edition (ME) must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT or FAT32. If Windows 98 or Windows ME is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT or FAT32.
Compressed DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes won’t be available while you are running Windows XP. It is not necessary to uncompress DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes that you will access only with Windows 98.
Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten.

Installation and How to :

The order of installation is critical if you want a successful multiboot installation. In general terms, install non–Microsoft operating systems and earlier versions of the Windows operating system first. This would mean installing UNIX or Linux operating systems first; then Windows 95 or Windows 98 or Windows Me; then Windows NT; and finally, Windows 2000 and/or Windows XP. (In the unlikely event that you’re installing MS–DOS, you can install that either before or after UNIX– or Linux–based operating systems, and generally I’d opt for before.) It’s also important to understand that, without using a third–party product to help out, you can’t install non-Microsoft operating systems, or Windows 95 and Windows 98 on the same computer, and that you can install only a single version of Windows95/98/Me. But you can install as many different versions of Windows NT and later versions of the Windows operating system as you have available logical drives, with the sole caveat that you must install all Windows NT versions before you install any Windows 2000 or Windows XP versions.

Let’s take a typical installation. Our target computer must be able to boot into Windows 98, Windows NT 4 Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows XP Professional. We have a 2–GB partition to hold our programs and the whole thing must fit on a single 10–GB hard drive. No problem. First, we partition the hard drive into two partitions: a 2–GB primary partition, and an 8-GB extended partition using FDisk. In the extended partition, we’ll create four logical volumes—D, E, F and G—to hold our remaining operating systems and our programs.

After the disk is partitioned, format the primary partition using the FAT16 file system and install Windows 98 on it. So far so good. Now, format your D drive with FAT16 as well. Eventually, you’ll install your programs on D drive.

Next, install Windows NT 4 Workstation. You will install this on any of the logical volumes not already used (either E drive, F drive or G drive) and choose NTFS as your file system. Leave D drive alone, because your applications go there where they’re visible to all operating systems. When you install Windows NT, it recognizes that you already have Windows 98 on the computer. Then it automatically sets up for dual booting between Windows 98 and Windows NT by creating a boot.ini file, which creates a menu of available operating systems. After you have Windows NT 4 installed, immediately apply Service Pack 6, before you install Windows 2000.

Finally, install Windows 2000 and Windows XP, each in its own logical volume. Again, choose NTFS as the file system. As you install them, they are automatically added to the boot.ini file on your C drive, which lets you choose operating systems at start up.

Error - ''boot_unmountable_drive'' when installing XP

For those who are getting this error when you try to install WinXP on a motherboard that has UDMA 100 Promise Controllers you need to do the following in order to get XP to install correctly if your hard drives are connected to the UDMA 100 controller.

Now there are two ways to get XP installed, the first one I am going to mention is the easiest way and the second is a bit more complicated but will work never the less.

#1 - Easiest Way

I have an Asus A7V motherboard and I have run into this more than once. What you need to do (this is the easiest way to do it that I have found) is to move your hard drives cable off the UDMA 100 controller (normally color coded blue) over to the UDMA 66 master controller on the motherboard. Once you have done that make sure your PC still boots into your current OS correctly. If it does then start your XP install or upgrade. Everything should be fine. Now, once XP is up on My Computer and choose Manage. Look under Device manager and you will see an error with a yellow exclamation point on it. Right click on it and install the Promise Drivers. You can download them directly from here -

Once you have the drivers installed re-boot the system and make sure the yellow exclamation points are gone and the promise drivers are listed under SCSI devices, if they are then turn off your system, move the HD's back to the UDMA 100 controller and boot it up. That should fix it.

#2 - Fresh Install

If you plan on installing XP to a freshly formatted hard drive the easiest way I have found to do this is to use the above method but for those with only one UDMA 66 controller on there motherboard you may need to do the following:

- First use the URL above and download the Promise drivers from the Promise website.

- Second you need to extract the drivers to a floppy or to the partition on your hard drive that XP can see (FAT32 works great for this) but there is a trick to this in order to make XP see the drivers. Once you extract the drivers the promise drivers automatically make folders for each individual OS (see screen shot), what you need to do is move the files from under the Win2K directory to the of the Promise Folder. So you take the three files under the Win2K folder and copy them, don't move them but copy them to the root of the main folder where you extracted the Promise drivers to (if you don't see three files go to Tools/Folder Options/View and check "show hidden files"). The three files you need to copy to the area are:

- Ultra.inf
- Ultra.sys

Now that you have all the files in the copy them to a floppy, reboot (if needed) and start your install of XP.

Now pay attention here - at the bottom of the very first blue setup screen you will see a prompt to hit F6 to install third party SCSI or RAID drivers. HIT F6 A FEW TIMES NOW!!! Now it might take a couple of seconds but you should be prompted to insert your drivers into your floppy drive. Do so and choose the Promise ATA100 controller. Keep this disk handy as you will be prompted for it one more time during the install.

Once XP has the drivers and loads them successfully XP should install just fine, well at least as far as the controller goes.

File Sharing without ICS

To enable file and printer sharing on networks not using Internet Connection

Sharing, you must run the Network Setup Wizard and select the following option:

This computer connects to the Internet through another computer on my network or through a residential gateway.

If your computer is directly connected to the Internet, re-run the Network Setup Wizard and select the following option:

This computer connects to the Internet directly or through a network hub.

Other computers on my network also connect to the Internet directly or through a hub

What upgrade paths does Windows XP support

A. XP Home Edition and XP Professional are available in full and upgrade versions. If you're upgrading from a qualifying OS, you can purchase the less-expensive upgrade version; otherwise, you need to purchase the full version. However, even if you purchase the full version, XP doesn't support all upgrade paths. Review the following table to determine whether XP supports your upgrade path:

Current Version Win XP Home Win XP Pro
Win 3.1/3.11 No No
Windows 95 No No
Windows 98/98SE Yes Yes
Windows ME Yes Yes
Windows NT 3.51 No No
Windows NT 4.0 No Yes
Windows 2000 Pro No Yes
Windows XP Home N/A Yes
Windows XP Pro No N/A

Use Infrared Data Transfer to Connect Computers and Devices

You can connect your computer to other nearby computers and devices without wires, using infrared light to transfer data, the same way your TV remote control sends signals. Most new portable computers have built–in infrared transceivers, and Windows XP supports the Infared Data Association (IrDA) standards and protocols, allowing you to connect with such devices as printers, modems, digital pagers, personal digital assistants, electronic cameras, organizers, cellular phones, and hand–held computers.

To establish an infrared link

1. Verify that the devices you want to connect with have infrared functionality enabled and work correctly.

For information about verifying infrared functionality on your computer, see below. For information about verifying infrared functionality on other devices, see the device manufacturer's documentation.

2. Align your devices so that the infrared transceivers are within one meter of each other, and the transceivers are pointing at each other.

When the devices are correctly aligned, the Infrared icon icon appears on the taskbar.

  • The infrared transceiver is the small, dark red window on your portable computer, printer, digital camera, adapter, or other device.

  • You can choose whether to hide or display the Wireless Link taskbar icon when two infrared devices are aligned. By default, the Wireless Link taskbar icon is displayed.

To verify infrared support on your computer

1. Verify that your computer has an infrared transceiver (the transceiver will appear as a small, dark red window).

If your computer does not have an infrared transceiver, see your manufacturer's documentation to verify whether IrDA functionality is supported. You could also consider adding a IrDA card which can found at most good computer supply shops.

2. Open Device Manager. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Printers and Other Hardware, and then click System in the left panel. On the Hardware tab, click Device Manager.

3. Double–click Infrared Devices

If you have an infrared transceiver, but Infrared Devices does not appear in Device Manager, you do not have an infrared device installed.

If no infrared devices are listed, do one or both of the following:

  • Enter BIOS setup to verify whether the infrared device is enabled in BIOS, in IrDA, or Fast IrDA (FIR) mode. For information about how to enter BIOS setup, see your computer manufacturer's documentation. If the infrared device is disabled in BIOS, you might be able to use your computer's BIOS setup to enable it.

    Warning: Using a BIOS setup utility incorrectly can cause your computer to operate incorrectly. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems resulting from the incorrect use of the BIOS setup can be solved. Use this utility at your own risk. Before you make any changes, make a note of the original settings so that you can reinstate them if necessary.

  • See your computer manufacturer's documentation to determine whether the BIOS needs to be updated.
    1. Verify that at least one infrared device is listed and that it is enabled.

    If infrared devices are listed but they are not enabled, verify that the infrared devices are installed correctly on your computer. Infrared transceivers are now installed in nearly all new portable computers. If your computer does not have an infrared transceiver, but it supports IrDA, and IrDA is enabled in BIOS, you can install an external infrared transceiver.

Use Hibernate and Standby to Conserve Batteries

The Hibernate function in Windows XP Professional can make the batteries in your laptop computer last longer.

Windows XP supports the industry standard power management technology known as the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), which enables the operating system to control power to your computer and peripheral devices. The power management features in Windows XP include Hibernate and Standby. Hibernate saves an image of your desktop with all open files and documents, and then it powers down your computer. When you turn on power, your files and documents are open on your desktop exactly as you left them. Standby reduces the power consumption of your computer by cutting power to hardware components you are not using. Standby can cut power to peripheral devices, your monitor, even your hard drive, but maintains power to your computer’s memory so you don’t lose your work.

Power Management Performance

Windows XP wakes from Hibernate faster than any earlier version of Windows. So you can preserve your batteries without taking time to close all your files and shut down, and then restart and open all your files when you’re ready to work again. If you need to leave your computer, you can just leave it. Windows XP can automatically put your computer into Hibernate mode after a specified period of inactivity. Or Windows XP can detect when your batteries are running low, and then automatically put your computer in Hibernate mode to save your work before the battery fails. To put your computer into hibernation, you must have a computer that is set up by the manufacturer to support this option.

To automatically put your computer into hibernation

You must be logged on to your computer with an owner account in order to complete this procedure.

1. Open Power Options in Control Panel. (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Power Options.)

2. Click the Hibernate tab, select the Enable hibernate support check box, and then click Apply.

If the Hibernate tab is unavailable, your computer does not support this feature.

Power options

3. Click the APM tab, click Enable Advanced Power Management support, and then click Apply.

The APM tab is unavailable on ACPI–compliant computers. ACPI automatically enables Advanced Power Management, which disables the APM tab.

4. Click the Power Schemes tab, and then select a time period in System hibernates. Your computer hibernates after it has been idle for the specified amount of time.

To manually put your computer into hibernation

You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of either the Administrators or Power Users group in order to complete this procedure. If your computer is connected to a network, network policy settings might also prevent you from completing this procedure.

1. Open Power Options in Control Panel. (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Power Options.)

2. Click the Hibernate tab, and then select the Enable hibernate support check box.

If the Hibernate tab is not available, your computer does not support this feature.
3. Click OK to close the Power Options dialog box.

4. Click Start, and then click Shut Down. In the What do you want the computer to do drop-down list, click Hibernate.

If you are using Windows XP Home Edition, or Windows XP Professional with Fast User Switching turned on, the Shut Down menu will present the options to Stand By, Turn Off, or Restart your computer. Hold down the Shift key, and the Stand By button will change to Hibernate.